Why Atheists Must be Heard Section 1: Freedom of Religion and Belief Question 1: What are areas of concern regarding the freedom to practice and express faith and beliefs, within your faith community and other such communities? Have new issues emerged since this report was published in relating to expression of faith?
Analysis of UNDP data forhttp: It is difficult to imagine effective learning independent of learning materials, both inside and outside of classrooms. Learning materials take many forms.
Hard-copy books are still the basis of education systems worldwide and are especially so in Africa. Digital materials are, however, quickly becoming learning tools of choice.
As information and communication technologies ICTs proliferate, the shift from hard-copy to digital learning materials should accelerate. Technology can have a transformative effect on entire systems of education and on individual teachers and learners within those systems.
ICTs are potentially democratising, facilitating provision of education to people and communities that are currently marginalised, whether due to gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, remoteness or other factors. They can help to overcome physical infrastructure challenges that pose barriers to the acquisition of learning tools and can open access to knowledge that was previously unobtainable.
There is reason to worry, however, that as some barriers to education fall, others may remain, or new barriers may arise. Specifically, it is essential to ensure that legal and policy frameworks are well suited to capitalise on, indeed catalyse, opportunities to improve the future of education in Africa.
In this respect, copyright environments — consisting of laws, policies and practices — are one significant determinant of access to learning materials and therefore a key component of education systems as a whole.
One school of thought about copyright, the utilitarian perspective, conceives of it as a necessary incentive for authors to invest time, intellectual effort and money into producing works of creative expression, including learning materials, to benefit the public at large.
Publishers and other intermediaries that acquire assignments or licences from authors can also exploit copyright protection to support business models that generate financial returns, some of which are retained as profit and some of which are reinvested to support the production of additional works.
Put simply, it is arguable that copyright protection itself facilitates the production and distribution of learning materials. Without copyright, so the argument goes, fewer learning materials would exist and those that would exist would be lower quality.
Another important school of thought conceives of copyright as a natural right of authors to control their creative outputs. This school of thought is unable to adequately justify marketable rights acquired by legal entities such as publishing companies, but its force is nonetheless powerful in the movement to extend the boundaries of copyright protection.
Both utilitarian and natural rights-based conceptions of copyright are relevant to African education systems and, more specifically, the availability of learning materials.
That is because on either or both grounds, copyright provides exclusive legal rights over protected works, including reproduction and dissemination rights. As a result, copyright-owners have the right to control how learning materials are produced, disseminated and used.
There is, however, a growing movement of national and international policymakers, private sector industry leaders, researchers and members of civil society who view copyright from a different perspective.
Their focus is not only on protecting copyright-owners, for the reasons discussed above. But the ultimate objective of copyright cannot be the protection of creative works for its own sake; copyright serves a nobler role in furthering broad public policy objectives, such as the advancement of learning.
It appears that 20th-century intellectual property policymaking, including copyright policymaking, was dominated by the belief that, because some protection is good, more protection is better.
Harmonisation was the ostensible justification, but it only occurred in one direction: The result has been criticised as a one size extra-large fits all mode of protection. In essence, a newly emerging intellectual property paradigm is based on a richer understanding of the concept of development.
While development was once defined as mainly an issue of economic growth, there is now a more nuanced view, a view that emphasises the connections between development and human freedom.
Nussbaum Women and human development:Methodist Church in Fiji Draft Revised Policies and Regulations Document. literature. All the course units in the diploma and degree programmes are taught and examined in English.
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